Applied Studies in International Development & Aid I

We have been learning both concepts and methods related with participatory development. The former includes the ‘ladder of citizen participation’ (Arnstein 1969), ‘asset-based community development’ (Kretzmann & McKnight 1993) and the Japanese ‘jimotogaku’ (Yoshimoto 2008). The latter includes a series of frameworks compiled as the ‘Project Cycle Management’ (PCM), as well as many other methods such as community mapping.